Early in his Summa Theologica, Thomas Aquinas addresses the question of whether the existence of God is self-evident.
Aquinas asks whether God exists and proposes five ways of proving God’s existence: motion, efficient cause, possibility and necessity, gradation, and governance.
These arguments were not original to Aquinas, but his synthesis and restatement of the argument has engaged philosophers and theologians for almost a millennia.
The following is a summary of Aquinas’s five ways of arguing for God’s existence:
First way: the argument from motion—everything in motion must be put into motion by another; this first mover is God
Second way: the argument from efficient cause—the chain of secondary causes and effects began with an uncaused first cause, which is God
Third way: the argument from necessity—contingent beings depend for their existence on a necessary being, which is God
Fourth way: the argument from gradation—degrees, or grades, of perfection in beings presuppose the existence of a perfect being, which is God
Fifth way: the argument from governance—nature acts with an end in mind as if designed by a designer, which is God
The five ways can be considered one way of arguing for God’s existence, which was later called the cosmological argument.
The Kalam Cosmological Argument Part 1
“Wesley Huff is a gifted thinker, clear communicator, and articulate defender of the faith. More so, Wesley cares deeply about the heart of the hearer, desiring all he engages with not only to believe facts about Jesus but to truly believe in Jesus. I highly recommend Wes to any church or organization looking for a godly man in Christ to defend against objections and equip believers for the sake of the Kingdom.”
– Jim Parker III,
Retired Professor and associate Dean of Worldview and Culture at the Southern Baptist Theological Seminary, Director of The Trinity institute
How Can Jesus Be the Only Way? https://subspla.sh/g27qr5s